actinian -- sea anemone, from the scientific term for sea anemones, Actiniaria
Amphiprion -- fish genus containing 27 species, all of which are symbiotic with sea anemones
cnidarian -- member of phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata), the group to which sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras belong
coelenterate -- member of phylum Coelenterata (also called Cnidaria); see cnidarian
Cryptodendrum -- sea anemones genus containing only one species, which may host anemonefish
Dascyllus -- genus of damselfishes, some species of which are facultative symbionts of actinians, particularly when young
Entacmaea -- genus containing at least two species, one of which is E. quadricolor, the most abundant host sea anemone, which harbours the greatest number of species of clownfishes
facultative symbiosis -- a relationship in which one partner may, but need not, live with another in order to survive; the relationship of most species of host sea anemones with anemonefishes is facultative
Heteractis -- genus containing four species of sea anemones, all of which may host anemonefish
host -- one of the partners in a symbiosis, generally the larger one (thus, the sea anemones that are the subject of this book are hosts to both fish and algal symbionts)
larva (plural larvae) -- a developmental stage that hatches from an egg and that typically lives in a different environment, looks entirely different, and eats different food from the adult of the species; oceanic larvae are generally very small, and are planktonic
Macrodactyla -- sea anemone genus containing only one species, which may host anemonefish
metamorphosis -- the change from larva to adult
melanism -- a tendency to develop black pigmentation, common in many species of anemonefish
mutualism -- a symbiosis in which both partners benefit
nematocyst -- microscopic, harpoon-like stinging capsule manufactured by all cnidarians (= coelenterates)
obligate symbiosis -- a relationship in which one partner must live with another in order to survive; except for a brief planktonic larval stage, anemonefishes are obligate symbionts of sea anemones
parasitism -- a symbiosis in which one partner benefits, to the detriment of the other
plankton -- oceanic plants and animals that drift with the currents; although most planktonic species are small, some, such as jellyfishes, are not
Premnas -- genus containing only one species, which is an anemonefish
Stichodactyla -- genus containing five species of sea anemones, three of which may host anemonefish
symbiont -- one of the partners in a symbiosis
symbiosis -- literally "living together", used by scientists to describe the relationship between unrelated species of plants and/or animals that live in intimate association
taxonomy -- the naming of living beings based on their evolutionary relationships to one another
zoophyte -- literally "animal plant," an archaic term for a sea anemone
zooxanthellae -- single-cell, dinoflagellate (golden-brown) algae that live symbiotically within the cells of some marine animals such as most reef-forming corals, many tropical and a few temperate sea anemones, some hydroids, and all giant clams
This is contribution number 66 of the Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. A generous grant from the Christensen Fund gave us the impetus to begin this project, which we had been discussing for a decade. We also acknowledge with gratitude the Director and Board of Trustees of the Western Australian Museum for making the publication of this book possible.
Fellowships to both of us from the CRI contributed to this work. Grants to DGF from the U. S. National Science Foundation (DEB 76-82277), the U. S. National Academy of Sciences (Bache Fund grant 551), the National Geographic Society (grant 1741), the Cocos Foundation, and the California Academy of Sciences are gratefully acknowledged. Some support for the creation of the book was from NSF grant DEB95-21819 to DGF under the Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Susanne Hauswaldt helped in preparation of the electronic version.
Individuals too numerous to mention provided assistance to DGF in the field, museum, and laboratory. She is especially indebted to Jack T. Moyer (Tatsuo Tanaka Memorial Biological Station, Miyake-jima, Japan); Aprilani Soegiarto (formerly of Lembaga Oseanologi Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia) and his staff including M. Hutomo, Kassim Moosa, and the crew of the R.V. Samudera; Richard N. Mariscal (Florida State University); and John Mizeu and Jean Pierret (CRI). Professor B. Condé, Director of the Nancy Aquarium (Musée de Zoologie de l'Université de Nancy) kindly provided longevity data for captive Amphiprion.
We thank the capable staff of the Publications Department of the Western Australian Museum who greatly asisted us during the production stages: Greg Jackson, Ann Ousey, Desmond Doherty, Vince McInerney and Malcolm Parker. Susanne Hauswaldt helped prepare the text for electronic dissemination.
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